Internet dating safety act texas online dating research paper conclusion format
(a) A person commits an offense if he knowingly initiates, communicates or circulates a report of a present, past, or future bombing, fire, offense, or other emergency that he knows is false or baseless and that would ordinarily:(1) cause action by an official or volunteer agency organized to deal with emergencies;(2) place a person in fear of imminent serious bodily injury; or(3) prevent or interrupt the occupation of a building, room, place of assembly, place to which the public has access, or aircraft, automobile, or other mode of conveyance.(b) An offense under this section is a Class A misdemeanor unless the false report is of an emergency involving a public or private institution of higher education or involving a public primary or secondary school, public communications, public transportation, public water, gas, or power supply or other public service, in which event the offense is a state jail felony.
(a) In this section "9-1-1 service" and "public safety answering point" or "PSAP" have the meanings assigned by Section 771.001, Health and Safety Code.(b) A person commits an offense if the person makes a call to a 9-1-1 service, or requests 9-1-1 service using an electronic communications device, when there is not an emergency and knowingly or intentionally:(1) remains silent; or(2) makes abusive or harassing statements to a PSAP employee.(c) A person commits an offense if the person knowingly permits an electronic communications device, including a telephone, under the person's control to be used by another person in a manner described in Subsection (b).(d) An offense under this section is a Class B misdemeanor.
The term does not include an uncaptured wild living creature or a livestock animal.(3) "Cruel manner" includes a manner that causes or permits unjustified or unwarranted pain or suffering.(4) "Custody" includes responsibility for the health, safety, and welfare of an animal subject to the person's care and control, regardless of ownership of the animal.(5) "Depredation" has the meaning assigned by Section 71.001, Parks and Wildlife Code.(6) "Livestock animal" has the meaning assigned by Section 42.09.(7) "Necessary food, water, care, or shelter" includes food, water, care, or shelter provided to the extent required to maintain the animal in a state of good health.(8) "Torture" includes any act that causes unjustifiable pain or suffering.(b) A person commits an offense if the person intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly:(1) tortures an animal or in a cruel manner kills or causes serious bodily injury to an animal;(2) without the owner's effective consent, kills, administers poison to, or causes serious bodily injury to an animal;(3) fails unreasonably to provide necessary food, water, care, or shelter for an animal in the person's custody;(4) abandons unreasonably an animal in the person's custody;(5) transports or confines an animal in a cruel manner;(6) without the owner's effective consent, causes bodily injury to an animal;(7) causes one animal to fight with another animal, if either animal is not a dog;(8) uses a live animal as a lure in dog race training or in dog coursing on a racetrack; or(9) seriously overworks an animal.(c) An offense under Subsection (b)(3), (4), (5), (6), or (9) is a Class A misdemeanor, except that the offense is a state jail felony if the person has previously been convicted two times under this section, two times under Section 42.09, or one time under this section and one time under Section 42.09.(c-1) An offense under Subsection (b)(1) or (2) is a felony of the third degree, except that the offense is a felony of the second degree if the person has previously been convicted under Subsection (b)(1), (2), (7), or (8) or under Section 42.09.(c-2) An offense under Subsection (b)(7) or (8) is a state jail felony, except that the offense is a felony of the third degree if the person has previously been convicted under this section or under Section 42.09.(d) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that:(1) the actor had a reasonable fear of bodily injury to the actor or to another person by a dangerous wild animal as defined by Section 822.101, Health and Safety Code; or(2) the actor was engaged in bona fide experimentation for scientific research.(e) It is a defense to prosecution under Subsection (b)(2) or (6) that:(1) the animal was discovered on the person's property in the act of or after injuring or killing the person's livestock animals or damaging the person's crops and that the person killed or injured the animal at the time of this discovery; or(2) the person killed or injured the animal within the scope of the person's employment as a public servant or in furtherance of activities or operations associated with electricity transmission or distribution, electricity generation or operations associated with the generation of electricity, or natural gas delivery.(f) It is an exception to the application of this section that the conduct engaged in by the actor is a generally accepted and otherwise lawful:(1) form of conduct occurring solely for the purpose of or in support of:(A) fishing, hunting, or trapping; or(B) wildlife management, wildlife or depredation control, or shooting preserve practices as regulated by state and federal law; or(2) animal husbandry or agriculture practice involving livestock animals.(g) This section does not create a civil cause of action for damages or enforcement of the section.
(a) In this section:(1) "Abandon" includes abandoning an animal in the person's custody without making reasonable arrangements for assumption of custody by another person.(2) "Animal" means a domesticated living creature, including any stray or feral cat or dog, and a wild living creature previously captured.
An offense under Subsection (b)(6) is a Class C misdemeanor, except that the offense is a Class A misdemeanor if it is shown on the trial of the offense that the person has been previously convicted of an offense under that subdivision.
An offense under Subsection (b)(3), (4), or (5) is a Class A misdemeanor.
(a) A person commits an offense if the person intentionally or knowingly damages, defaces, mutilates, or burns the flag of the United States or the State of Texas.(b) In this section, "flag" means an emblem, banner, or other standard or a copy of an emblem, standard, or banner that is an official or commonly recognized depiction of the flag of the United States or of this state and is capable of being flown from a staff of any character or size.
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(a) A person commits an offense if the person knowingly directs a light from a laser pointer at a uniformed safety officer, including a peace officer, security guard, firefighter, emergency medical service worker, or other uniformed municipal, state, or federal officer.(b) In this section, "laser pointer" means a device that emits a visible light amplified by the stimulated emission of radiation.(c) An offense under this section is a Class C misdemeanor.
(a) A person commits an offense if:(1) the person intentionally directs a light from a laser pointer or other light source at an aircraft; and(2) the light has an intensity sufficient to impair the operator's ability to control the aircraft.(b) It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this section that the actor was using the light to send an emergency distress signal.(c) An offense under this section is a Class C misdemeanor unless the intensity of the light impairs the operator's ability to control the aircraft, in which event the offense is a Class A misdemeanor.(d) If conduct that constitutes an offense under this section also constitutes an offense under any other law, the actor may be prosecuted under this section or the other law.(e) In this section, "laser pointer" has the meaning assigned by Section 42.13.
(a) For the purpose of this section, "riot" means the assemblage of seven or more persons resulting in conduct which:(1) creates an immediate danger of damage to property or injury to persons;(2) substantially obstructs law enforcement or other governmental functions or services; or(3) by force, threat of force, or physical action deprives any person of a legal right or disturbs any person in the enjoyment of a legal right.(b) A person commits an offense if he knowingly participates in a riot.(c) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the assembly was at first lawful and when one of those assembled manifested an intent to engage in conduct enumerated in Subsection (a), the actor retired from the assembly.(d) It is no defense to prosecution under this section that another who was a party to the riot has been acquitted, has not been arrested, prosecuted, or convicted, has been convicted of a different offense or of a different type or class of offense, or is immune from prosecution.(e) Except as provided in Subsection (f), an offense under this section is a Class B misdemeanor.(f) An offense under this section is an offense of the same classification as any offense of a higher grade committed by anyone engaged in the riot if the offense was:(1) in the furtherance of the purpose of the assembly; or(2) an offense which should have been anticipated as a result of the assembly.
(a) A person commits an offense if, without legal privilege or authority, he intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly:(1) obstructs a highway, street, sidewalk, railway, waterway, elevator, aisle, hallway, entrance, or exit to which the public or a substantial group of the public has access, or any other place used for the passage of persons, vehicles, or conveyances, regardless of the means of creating the obstruction and whether the obstruction arises from his acts alone or from his acts and the acts of others; or(2) disobeys a reasonable request or order to move issued by a person the actor knows to be or is informed is a peace officer, a fireman, or a person with authority to control the use of the premises:(A) to prevent obstruction of a highway or any of those areas mentioned in Subdivision (1); or(B) to maintain public safety by dispersing those gathered in dangerous proximity to a fire, riot, or other hazard.(b) For purposes of this section, "obstruct" means to render impassable or to render passage unreasonably inconvenient or hazardous.(c) An offense under this section is a Class B misdemeanor.
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